abstracts regarding coffee research from the
North American Ornithological Conference, 2006
population declines of Cerulean Warbler
population, few studies have examined this species on both breeding and
wintering grounds. Our study investigates 1) density and reproductive
success related to forest management in southern Ohio, and 2) density
and persistence in primary forest and shade coffee plantations in the
Venezuelan Andes. On the breeding grounds, variation in density was
best explained by differences in forest structure, especially canopy
structure. From 2004-2005, estimates of daily nest survival (n = 53
nests) for forests adjacent to clearcuts was 0.957 (� 0.013 SE)
compared to 0.974 (� 0.009 SE) when surrounded by unharvested forest,
which translate to large differences in nest survival over a 25-day
nesting period (i.e., 33.7% compared to 51.8%). Preliminary results
from the wintering grounds suggest that shade coffee may provide
critical habitat for overwintering Cerulean Warblers. From December
2005 � February 2006, densities of Cerulean Warblers were higher in
shade coffee plantations than primary forest at similar elevation. Of
20 Cerulean Warblers captured in shade coffee plantations, 18 of these
individuals were resighted 1-11 times after the initial banding event,
data, which will ultimately be used to estimate, overwinter survival.
Gonzalez-Leal, C, A., Consejo Regulador del Cafe, A. C., Xalapa, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org; Salas-Bueno, A., Consejo Regulador del Cafe, A. C., Xalapa, Mexico, email@example.com; Montejo-Diaz, J., Endemicos Insulares, A.C., Veracruz, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org; McAndrews, A. Endemicos Insulares, A.C., Veracruz, Mexico, email@example.com; Martinez-Gomez, J. E., Endemicos Insulares, A. C., Veracruz, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org
The certification process that guarantees high quality coffee and its denomination of origin promotes the protection of cloud forest because it requires the use shade trees. The Consejo Regulador del Caf� collaborates with ca. 1000 farms in Central Veracruz covering 17,130 hectares, of which: 70% are under medium shade trees (4-10 meters tall), 20% under tall shade trees (>20 meters) and 10% under short shade trees (<4 meters). The region of Zongolica excels in the use of tall shade trees composed of original cloud forest. The Consejo Regulador del Caf� aspires to certify coffee production in another 111,000 hectares located in mountainous regions of central Veracruz favorable for high quality coffee. The combined area of certified coffee plantations and those with potential for certification (128,130 ha) is slightly greater than that of El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve (119,000 ha). The conservation of cloud forest helps protect a diversity of endemic and migratory bird species such as Bearded Word-Partridge, Sumichrast�s Wren, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Blue-winged Warbler, and Wedge-tailed Sabrewing. Extensive cattle pastures and sugar cane plantations have greatly reduced potential habitat for numerous forest-restricted species. Coffee plantations with native tree cover provide one of the last refuges for these and many other vertebrates.
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TRADITIONAL COFFEE PLANTATIONS:
SUITABLE HABITAT IN THE ANTHROPOGENIC MATRIX FOR NEOTROPICAL RESIDENT AND
Leyequi�n Abarca, E., Resource Ecology Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen; University, Wageningen, Netherlands, Euridice.Leyequien@wur.nl; L�pez de Aquino, S., Museo de Zoolog�a �Alfonso L. Herrera�, Facultad de Ciencias UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico, email@example.com; De Boer , F., Resource Ecology Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands, Fred.deBoer@wur.nl
Habitat loss and fragmentation by wide-spread
deforestation are major causes threatening the Neotropical avifauna. The study
area is located in a shade coffee region in the north-eastern mountain range
of Puebla, Mexico, representing an important forested agricultural land cover.
The study region is currently suffering an increasing land conversion leading
to habitat loss for the avifauna. We found that traditional shade coffee areas
provide suitable habitat for Neotropical migrants and residents. We documented
an original list for the region of 181 bird species within shade coffee
plantations, representing a total of 12 orders, 31 families and 123 genera.
The predicted species richness (Smax) and the accumulation curve show that the
sampling effort enabled us to detect the majority of bird species. From the
total 181 species, 124 (69 %) are resident birds and 57 (31 %) migrants, 9 (5
%) are forest-dependent species, 4 (2 %) endemics, 10 (5 %) are subject to
special protection and 4 (2 %) endangered. We found that vegetation cover and
stand structure variables within the shade coffee plantations, have a
significant positive relationship (p = 0.05) with species richness, as well as
the proportion of shade coffee plantations within the landscape.
SENSITIVE BIRD SPECIES IN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS
Tejeda-Cruz, C., Insituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org
I developed numerical models to explain the presence of high sensitivity bird species in a coffee-forest landscape in southern M�xico. Altitude, distance to the edge, tree density, canopy height and canopy cover were the most important variables explaining differences in species composition between habitats. Avian diversity and the presence of species sensitive to disturbance were affected by habitat type. Richness and abundance of sensitive bird species decreased in coffee plantations compared to forest. High sensitivity species have a greater probability of occurrence in primary forest sites above 1,200 m with high shrub density, far from the edge with coffee plantations and with less than 75% ground cover. In coffee plantations, high sensitivity species are more likely to occur at sites above 1,300 m, with less than 70% canopy cover and less than 40% ground cover. A combination of altitude and distance to the forest were the two most important variables explaining the distribution of high sensitivity species. Tree species diversity was related to neither bird species diversity nor abundance; however, tree species diversity was related to abundance of high sensitivity species in shaded monoculture coffee. Results support the notion that shade coffee with high levels of structural diversity may be good for conservation purposes; however, shade coffee may only be important for forest species when close to forest. Shaded monoculture was the most disturbed of the habitats studied, and its quality as bird habitat could be enhanced by increasing tree species diversity, particularly at higher elevations, close to primary forest.
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BIRDS, SHADE GROWN COFFEE, AND COMMUNITY OUTREACH IN ECUADOR
Mordecai, K, A, Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, United States, email@example.comMordecai, R, S, Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, United States, Justicia, R, , Fundaci�n Maquipucuna, Quito, Ecuador,
Management of natural resources requires not only an understanding of how to manage that resource, but also needs the understanding and support of the local communities and stakeholders. Interpretation plays an important role in the management of natural resources by fostering positive attitudes towards conservation and in addition promotes understanding and appreciation of the environment. As part of ongoing outreach targeting the benefits of shade grown coffee being conducted by Fundaci�n Maquipucuna, a local conservation organization in Ecuador, we have created interpretive signs and a children�s coloring book highlighting the importance of shade grown coffee to bird communities. The interpretive signs will be placed at Maquipucuna Reserve and surrounding areas. The coloring book will help explain complicated ecological processes and relationships in the coffee plantations. This project will educate local school groups, Ecuadorians from Quito, members of surrounding communities, and foreign visitors. Through this outreach program we hope to educate the local community and promote shade grown coffee to potential consumers who visit Maquipucuna and surrounding areas.
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