How much eco-certified coffee is purchased by the big coffee companies?
In late 2010, I posted data on how little sustainably-grown coffee was purchased by the world’s major coffee buyers. The post utilized mostly 2008 data, much of which came from a terrific publication, The Coffee Barometer 2009, which was put out by the Tropical Commodity Coalition. Unfortunately, TCC has now disbanded. They published a final Coffee Barometer, the 2012 edition1, which provides 2010 figures. I have updated the table below with new numbers from this report as well as other sources. I will be maintaining this table with periodic updates, using the methods described below.
Latest update June 2013
I’m going to focus on the three major world buyers (Nestlé, Kraft, and JM Smuckers), followed by the other buyers with top U.S. market share (Starbucks, Green Mountain Coffee Roasters). I will also include Caribou Coffee, the second-largest U.S. coffeehouse. Other players, some of which were mentioned in the previous post, are primarily European, or the data is not disclosed or difficult to uncover. I have removed Sara Lee/Douwe Egberts since it has divested itself of North American coffee operations, much of which was absorbed by Smuckers.
I’m going to consider eco-certifications or standards only: Rainforest Alliance and organic; since Smithsonian Bird-Friendly is produced in such tiny volumes and must be certified organic, it is included in the organic category. I also note Starbucks CAFE Standards. Although it only applies to Starbucks coffee, it includes good environmental criteria. I’ll disregard coffee purchased under Fair Trade and the 4C Code, neither of which have strong/meaningful environmental standards. I’ll mention but not count towards percentages Utz Certified and Nespresso’s AAA Program. You can read about all of these certifications and criteria on my certifications guide page.
Data sources will be linked (2008 data sources are in the previous post), or included in the footnotes. I’ve converted volumes to metric tons for comparison; some volumes and percentages are calculated or extrapolated from closely related figures.
|*Market share data is from 2011 based on data from Euromonitor: Global Coffee Corporate Strategy: A Dynamic Market Packed with Pod Potential, with market share based on retail selling price.
**Note that often reporting is done by fiscal, rather than calendar, year.
Brands owned include Nescafé, Nespresso, Taster’s Choice, Clasico.
U.S. share: 1.8%.
|2008: 780,000 tons|
2010: 870,000 tons1 (56,373 tons was Nespresso2)
|2010: 2000 tons Fair Trade, Utz, Rainforest Alliance, and/or organic1 (0.2%), see note.|
|Nestlé offers no organic varieties, so their small amount of certified purchases may not include organic; nor does Fair Trade certification have notable ecological criteria.
In their 2011 "Creating Shared Value" report4, the company noted, "There are no plans to market certified coffee to consumers... We believe that our own Responsible Sourcing platform...offers a more targeted approach than certification alone."
In the previous post, I noted 13,000 tons (or 1.7%) were purchased under their proprietary Nespresso AAA Sustainable Quality program. For what it's worth, in June 2011, Nespresso reported2 it sourced 28,911 tons under the AAA program in 2010. This represents 3.5% of Nestlé's total purchases.
Unfortunately, the criteria or standards for this program are not publicly available. They were developed in cooperation with Rainforest Alliance, but Nespresso states that their program was developed to improve quality, while Rainforest Alliance standards focus on protecting the environment. Nespresso has indicated that they are now working to help groups of farmers get Rainforest Alliance certification so the farmers can get more money for the coffee they choose not to sell to Nespresso3(my emphasis added).
In August 2011, The Nescafé Plan was announced. The goal is to source 180,000 tons of coffee directly from farmers by 2015 that will be 4C compliant (read about these very marginal standards here). Another 90,000 tons of Nescafé coffee will be sourced under Rainforest Alliance principals (not certification) by 2020.
Brands owned include Yuban, Maxwell House, General Foods International Coffee, Gevalia, Kenco, Maxim, Tassimo, Nabob, and Sanka.
|2008: 740,000 tons|
2010: 700,000 tons1
|2008: 29,500 tons Rainforest Alliance (4%)
2010: 50,000 tons Rainforest Alliance (7%)
2012: 52,000 tons Rainforest Alliance
|Some coffees are organic, so either some of the Rainforest Alliance total is also organic, or there is some additional volume certified organic only.
A company split divided Kraft's coffee brands between Kraft (Maxwell House) and most European brands to Mondelēz International.
Mondelēz has committed to sustainably sourcing 100% of all European coffee brands, including Rainforest Alliance for European and Canadian brands, by 2015. See also theirCoffee Made Happy initiative.
Brands owned include Folgers (#1 brand in U.S.) and Millstone; Kava; Dunkin Donuts grocery store coffee; Rowland Coffee brands including Café Bustelo and Café Pilon. In early 2012, Smuckers also purchased Sara Lee's North American foodservice coffee operations including Java Coast, and various convenience store, restaurant, and institutional accounts.
|U.S: 18.4%||2008: 280,000 tons (prior to acquisitions)|
2010: 250,000 tons1
|2008: 1,500 tons (0.5%) was certified either Rainforest Alliance, Fair Trade, and/or organic.
2010: data not disclosed.
|Smuckers is buying up coffee operations, which now make up the largest portion of the company's product sales. In addition to buying hardly any certified coffee of any sort, Smuckers has the essentially the worst sustainability initiative and reporting of all major coffee companies. The TCC1 notes, "[Smucker's] seems to lack a clear and concise CSR stategy, ... does not provide verifiable procurement figures of certified coffees, has no specific goals for a more sustainable coffee sector, and its future commitment is extremely vague."|
|Starbucks||U.S.: 9.1%||2008: 175,000 tons|
2010: 122,000 tons
2011: 193,776 tons
2012: 247,208 tons
|2008: 4,500 tons organic (2.6%); 120,500 tons under their CAFE Practices (68.8%). I gave a combined total of 71.4%, but some may overlap.
2010: 4000 tons organic1 (3.3%) plus 103,000 tons (84%) under CAFE Practices.
2011: 15558 tons Fair Trade (8%), 4354 tons organic (2.2%), 166,648 tons under CAFE Practices
2012: 222,487 tons (90%) under CAFE Practices, 20,140 tons under Fairtrade, and 3946 under organic.
|The environmental standards of Starbucks CAFE Practices preferred buyer program are more detailed and stronger than many third-party certifications, including Fair Trade and UTZ Certified. See also my post on recent CAFE Practices assessment reports".
The TCC report1 indicates Starbucks purchased 135,000 tons; I used the figure that came directly from the company website.
The TCC1 notes, "Stabucks appears to be far and away the best in terms of sustainable coffee procurement [of the top ten buyers]..."
|Green Mountain Coffee Roasters|
Brands include Timothy's World Coffee, Tully's, Diedrich, Coffee People, Gloria Jean's, Van Houtte, and Newman's Own.
|U.S.: 4.5%||20085: 18,439 tons|
20105: 22,282 tons
|20085: 4133 organic
20105: 5006 tons organic (22.5%).
20116: 8098 Rainforest Alliance + 12,224 organic = 20322 (22.5%)
20127: 7030 Rainforest Alliance, 6 organic, 13148 FairTrade organic = 20184 (21.5%)
|In previous years, GMCR broke out their Fair Trade figure into Fair Trade Organic (FTO) and Fair Trade non-organic. This was not done in 2012, but I obtained the breakdown and correct figures from GMCR directly.
Also stated in their report: 70% of Timothy's World Coffee will be Rainforest Alliance certified in 2013.
|Caribou Coffee||2010: 9100 tons||2010: 9100 tons Rainforest Alliance (100%)|
|Caribou is the first major coffeehouse to source 100% Rainforest Alliance (or any eco-certified) coffee. See this post for details.
Caribou was acquired by Joh. A. Benckiser Group (JAB), a private German holding company, in late 2012. JAB also owns Peet's Coffee & Tea.
As a point of reference, world coffee production in 2010 was over 8 million metric tons. Sixteen percent of that is produced under various sustainability initiatives (including those I didn’t put in the report, such as Fair Trade, 4C verified, and Nespresso AAA), but only 9% gets sold under one of these labels1.
1Tropical Commodity Coalition, Coffee Barometer 2012.
2Nestlé Nespresso Ecolaboration Progress Report, June 2011.
3Accelerating progress on the Nespresso AAA Sustainable Quality Program in Central America. March 2011.
4Nestlé Creating Shared Value Report 2011 — PDF.
5Brewing a Better World. Transformation. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Corporate Responsibility Report, FY ’09 – PDF.
6Together We Can. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Corporate Responsibility Report, FY ’11 – PDF.
7Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Sustainability Report, FY ’12 – PDF.
Starbucks Global Responsibility Report 2012 (PDF)